In the Hermitage in St. Petersburg a small plate of mammoth bone with spiral figures of many dozens of dots is stored. It was found in 1929 in village Malta near the western part of the Baikal lake (Siberia). The age of the plate is more than 15 thousand years.
While stored in the Hermitage the plate was periodically investigated by various scientists. One of the first was a German mythologist Karl Hentze. Hentze interprets spirals of the plate as symbols of the moon phases and even as an image of the whole universe, but without any quantitative analysis. The most careful analysis of semantics and quantitative system of the plate was done more than 10 years ago by Russian professor Larichev (Larichev 1989). His conclusions were as follows: advanced knowledge about the visible movements of the star sky are fixed on the plate, which are a result of exact long-term observation of the Sun, Moon and visible planets. The precision of registration and representation of the information is quite enough for a sure prediction of the lunar and solar eclipse!
Larichev has detected the following main elements on the plate:
solar year: 243+62+45+14 = 365 days;
lunar year: 243+57+54 = 354 days;
four-year cycle: (242+63+45+14+11+54+58)x3 = 365.24 x 4 = 1461 days;
sidereal form of the saros: 242x27,21=6585.35 days =18.61 solar years = 19 sidereal years;
synodic form of the saros: (54+57+63+45+4)x29.53 = 6585.35 days;
synodic cycle times for planets:
Venus: (54+11+14+45) x 29.53 = 5 cycles;
Mars: (62+57) x 29.53 = 4.5 cycles;
Jupiter: (63+45) x 29.53 = 8 cycles;
Saturn: (57+54+11) x 29.53 = 9.5 cycles.
Additional analysis of the plate as special simulation tool has allowed to determine the following:
1) The Malta plate model permits besides an exact “scientific” simulation of motions on the sky sphere also a simplified pragmatic “calendar” simulation for wide use:
» 1/6 of the solar year: 62 days;
» 1/8 of the solar year: 45 days;
» double sidereal month: 54 days;
» double sinodic month: 58 days;
» synodic cycle time for Mercury (four internal points of an element “14”): 4 x 29.5 = 116 days;
» synodic cycle time for Venus (ten external points of an element “14”): 10 x 29.5 x 2 = 590 days.
Then the plate can be interpreted as “model of the world” or “world tree”.
2) The element "14" can be easily used for observation of the female reproductive cycle:
Stage 1: 10 “external” days of barren period followed by menstruation.
Stage 2: (4+4) “internal” days followed by ovulation.
Stage 3: 10 “external” days before menstruation.
Stage 4: If menstruation does not come in time, then it will be necessary to make testy pass
of the whole cycle (10+4+4+10).
Stage 5: In case of delay of the menstruation the cycle must be corrected.
Stage 6: If during the test pass of the cycle the menstruation was not, then go to central spiral “242”.
General term of pregnancy is 10+28+242=280 days.
Then central part of the plate can be interpreted as the “life tree”.
3) “Malta plate” was probably wide used special computational tool in ancient society, and it can be interpreted as specific simulational prototype for the famous mythological concept of “life/world tree” .
4) Baikal is located on the same latitude as Stonehenge. Main solar and lunar directions for Stonehenge and for the “mammoth plate” coincide. The plate could be used also as a "personal Stonehenge" or microobservatory.
5) Such form of fixing and transfer of the information allowed at the initial stage of history of the civilization (more than 10 000 years ago) to accumulate, apply and transmit knowledge without alphabet and another forms of writing.